NOTE 2: SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]||
NOTE 2: SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The Company’s financial statements are prepared using the accrual method in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United State of America (“GAAP”). Certain amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current period’s presentation including Notes payable; Notes payable – related parties; short and long term Convertible debt, net of unamortized discounts; short and long term Convertible debt, net of unamortized discounts – related party.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure on contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASU 2014-09 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASU 2014-09) and all subsequent amendments to the ASU, which (i) creates a single framework for recognizing revenue from contracts with customers that fall within its scope and (ii) revises when it is appropriate to recognize a gain (loss) from the transfer of nonfinancial assets. The core principle of ASU 2014-09 is that revenue is recognized when the transfer of goods or services to customers occurs in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the Company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 requires the disclosure of sufficient information to enable readers of the Company’s financial statements to understand the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts. ASU 2014-09 also requires disclosure of information regarding significant judgments and changes in judgments, and assets recognized from costs incurred to obtain or fulfill a contract. ASU 2014-09 provides two methods of retrospective application, full and modified retrospective. Full retrospective requires companies to apply ASU 2014-09 to each prior reporting period presented while modified retrospective requires companies to retrospectively apply ASU 2014-09 with the cumulative effect recognized at the date of initial application. The Company elected to adopt ASU 2014-09 using the modified retrospective application effective for the quarter ending March 31, 2018, with no impact the Company’s financial statements as it has no current contracts for revenue generating activities and a limited history of generating revenue from operations as discussed below.
The Company generated revenue in 2012 related to license fees received for the use of its technology. The license fee revenue requires no continuing performance on the Company’s part and is recognized upon receipt of the licensing fee and grant of the license.
During 2012, the Company granted a 25-year technology license agreement for a one-time license fee of $750,000. The first installment of the license fee of $375,000 has been collected pursuant to the signing of a coal testing plant construction contract and the balance of $375,000 will be due upon the successful testing of the coal testing plant, estimated sometime in fiscal 2019. In addition, under the technology license agreement, the Company will receive an on-going royalty fee of $1 per metric ton on all coal processed using the technology, up to $4,000,000 per annum. No revenue has been earned in 2018 or 2017.
Net Loss per Common Share
Basic net loss per share is computed on the basis of the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during each year. Diluted net loss per share is computed similar to basic net loss per share except that the denominator is increased to include the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if the potential common shares had been issued and if the additional common shares were dilutive. The Company uses the “if-converted” method for calculating the earnings per share impact of outstanding convertible debentures, whereby the securities are assumed converted and an earnings per incremental share is computed. Options, warrants and their equivalents are included in EPS calculations through the treasury stock method. In periods where losses are reported, the weighted-average number of common stock outstanding excludes common stock equivalents, because their inclusion would be anti-dilutive.
The calculation of basic and diluted net loss per share for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 are as follows:
The following table summarizes the potential shares of common stock that were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 as such shares would have had an anti-dilutive effect:
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Clean Coal considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents for purposes of preparing its Statements of Cash Flows. There are no cash equivalents at December 31 2018 and 2017.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The fair values of the Company’s financial instruments including cash, accounts payable, accrued expenses, convertible debt and notes payable approximate their carrying amounts.
Federal Income Tax
Clean Coal files income tax returns in the U.S. federal jurisdiction, and the state of Nevada. Clean Coal’s policy is to recognize interest accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits in interest expense and penalties in operating expenses.
Deferred taxes are provided on a liability method whereby deferred tax assets are recognized for deductible temporary differences and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards and deferred tax liabilities are recognized for taxable temporary differences. Temporary differences are the differences between the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax bases. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment.
Net deferred tax assets consist of the following components as of December 31, 2018 and 2017:
The federal income tax provision differs from the amount of income tax determined by applying the U.S. federal income tax rate of 21% to pretax income from continuing operations for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 due to the following:
The Company had net operating losses of approximately $35,642,879 that begin to expire in 2028. Due to the change in ownership provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, net operating loss carryforwards for Federal income tax reporting purposes are subject to annual limitations. Should a change in ownership occur, net operating loss carryforwards may be limited as to use in future years. In accordance with the statute of limitations for federal tax returns, the Company’s federal tax returns for the years 2014 through 2017 are subject to examination.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment consists of furniture and fixtures and computer equipment, recorded at cost, depreciated upon placement in service over estimated useful lives ranging from three to five years on a straight-line basis. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, Clean Coal had property and equipment with no net book value. Expenditures for normal repairs and maintenance are charged to expense as incurred.
Impairment of Long Lived Assets
In the event facts and circumstances indicate the carrying value of a long-lived asset, including associated intangibles, may be impaired, an evaluation of recoverability is performed by comparing the estimated future undiscounted cash flows associated with the asset to the asset’s carrying amount to determine if a write-down to market value or discounted cash flow is required.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development expenses include salaries, related employee expenses, research expenses and consulting fees. All costs for research and development activities are expensed as incurred. Clean Coal expenses the costs of licenses of patents and the prosecution of patents until the issuance of such patents and the commercialization of related products is reasonably assured. During the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company recognized $307,151 and $2,197,437 of research and development costs, respectively.
FASB ASC 718 established financial accounting and reporting standards for stock-based employee compensation plans. It defines a fair value based method of accounting for an employee stock option or similar equity instrument. Clean Coal accounts for stock-based compensation to employees in accordance with FASB ASC 718. Clean Coal accounts for share based payments to non-employees in accordance with FASB ASC 505-50.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
ASC 820, Fair Value Measurements (ASC 820) and ASC 825, Financial Instruments (ASC 825), requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. It establishes a fair value hierarchy based on the level of independent, objective evidence surrounding the inputs used to measure fair value. A financial instrument’s categorization within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. It prioritizes the inputs into three levels that may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1 - Level 1 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 - Level 2 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in markets with insufficient volume or infrequent transactions (less active markets); or model-derived valuations in which significant inputs are observable or can be derived principally from, or corroborated by, observable market data.
Level 3 - Level 3 applies to assets or liabilities for which there are unobservable inputs to the valuation methodology that are significant to the measurement of the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
The carrying values of cash, accounts payable, and accrued liabilities approximate fair value. Pursuant to ASC 820 and 825, the fair value of cash is determined based on “Level 1” inputs, which consist of quoted prices in active markets for identical assets. As of December 31, 208 and 2017, the recorded values of all other financial instruments approximate their current fair values because of their nature and respective maturity dates or durations.
The Company accounts for derivative instruments in accordance with ASC Topic 815, Derivatives and Hedging (ASC 815) and all derivative instruments are reflected as either assets or liabilities at fair value in the balance sheet.
The Company uses estimates of fair value to value its derivative instruments. Fair value is defined as the price to sell an asset or transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between willing and able market participants. In general, The Company’s policy in estimating fair values is to first look at observable market prices for identical assets and liabilities in active markets, where available. When these are not available, other inputs are used to model fair value such as prices of similar instruments, yield curves, volatilities, prepayment speeds, default rates and credit spreads (including for The Company’s liabilities), relying first on observable data from active markets. Additional adjustments may be made for factors including liquidity, credit, bid/offer spreads, etc., depending on current market conditions. Transaction costs are not included in the determination of fair value. When possible, The Company seeks to validate the model’s output to market transactions. Depending on the availability of observable inputs and prices, different valuation models could produce materially different fair value estimates. The values presented may not represent future fair values and may not be realizable. The Company categorizes its fair value estimates in accordance with ASC 820 based on the hierarchical framework associated with the three levels of price transparency utilized in measuring financial instruments at fair value as discussed above. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company did not have any derivative instruments.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
The Company has implemented all new accounting pronouncements that are in effect and that may impact its financial statements. The Company does not believe that there are any other new accounting pronouncements that have been issued that might have a material impact on its financial position or results of operations.
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which supersedes the revenue recognition requirements in ASC Topic 605, Revenue Recognition, and most industry-specific guidance. This ASU is based on the principle that revenue is recognized to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The ASU also requires additional disclosure about the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts, including significant judgments and changes in judgments, and assets recognized from costs incurred to obtain or fulfill a contract. The amendments in the ASU must be applied using one of two retrospective methods and are effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2016. In December 2016, the FASB modified ASU 2014-09 to be effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that reporting period. As modified, the FASB permits the adoption of the new revenue standard early, but not before the annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company adopted the new standard on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method without a material impact on our financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASC 842, Leases (“ASC 842”). ASC 842 related to leases to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by requiring the recognition of right of use assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet. Most prominent among the changes in the standard is the recognition of ROU assets and lease liabilities by lessees for those leases classified as operating leases. Under the standard, disclosures are required to meet the objective of enabling users of financial statements to assess the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. The Company is also required to recognize and measure leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented using a modified retrospective approach, with certain practical expedients available.
The Company elected to early adopt ASC 842 effective January 1, 2018 and have elected all available practical expedients. The standard did not have a material impact on our financial statements.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting (“ASU 2017-09”) which clarifies when to account for a change to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award as a modification. Under the new standard, modification accounting is required only if the fair value, the vesting conditions, or the classification of the award (as equity or liability) changes as a result of the change in terms or conditions. ASU 2017-09 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company adopted this new standard on January 1, 2018 without a material impact on our financial statements.
In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-11, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260) Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480) Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): I. Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features, II. Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with a Scope Exception. ASU 2017-11 intends to reduce the complexity associated with the issuer’s accounting for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity. Specifically, the Board determined that a down round feature (as defined) would no longer cause a freestanding equity-linked financial instrument (or an embedded conversion option) to be accounted for as a derivative liability at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in current earnings and is effective in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. The Company adopted the new standard during 2017, preventing the need to account for several outstanding warrants that contain down round features as derivative instruments.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef